Letters and Sounds
Some definitions to help………..
Phoneme – This is the smallest unit of sound in a word. How many phonemes can you hear in cat?
Grapheme – These are the letters that represent the phoneme.
A grapheme can consist of 1, 2 or more letters.
We use sound buttonsto show graphemes eg
dog - d o g sheep - sh ee p
. . . - - .
A phoneme can be represented/spelt in different ways eg c at k ennel ch oir
The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme eg
ea h ea d s ea l
Remember – a phoneme you hear, a grapheme you see!!
A word always has the same number of graphemes and phonemes.
Diagraph – 2 letters making one sound eg ai oy ee
Trigraph – 3 letters making one sound eg igh air
Split diagraph – where the two letters are not adjacent eg a – e
Blending (for reading) – Recognising the letter sounds in a written word eg c-u-p n-igh-t. Blending the sounds in the correct order to pronounce the words cup and night.
Segmenting (for spelling) – Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word eg h-i-m s-t-or-k and writing down letters for each sound to form the word him and stork.
CVC words – words that are spelt using a consonant, vowel, consonant eg p-i-g.
CVCC words eg b-a-n-d
CCVC words eg c-l-a-p
Phase 2 Letter sets
Set 1 – s a t p
Set 2 - i n m d
Set 3 – g o c k
Set 4 – ck e u r
Set 5 – h b f,ff l,ll
Phase 3 Letter sets
Set 6 – j v w x
Set 7 – y z,zz qu
Phase 3 graphemes for recognition
ch sh th ng ai ee igh oa oo ar or ur
ow oi ear air ure er
Revision of Phase 3 plus CVCC and CCVC words
Alternative pronunciations for previously learnt graphemes eg
ow c ow b l ow
ay oy wh ou ir ph ie ue ew ea aw oe au
a-e e-e i-e o-e u-e