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Letters and Sounds

Some definitions to help………..

Phoneme – This is the smallest unit of sound in a word.  How many phonemes can you hear in cat?

Grapheme – These are the letters that represent the phoneme.
A grapheme can consist of 1, 2 or more letters.

We use sound buttonsto show graphemes eg
dog  -  d o g       sheep  -  sh  ee p
          . . .                  -   -  .

A phoneme can be represented/spelt in different ways    eg   c  at    k ennel     ch  oir

The same grapheme may represent more than one phoneme eg

  ea      h ea d    s ea l

Remember – a phoneme you hear, a grapheme you see!!

A word always has the same number of graphemes and phonemes.

Diagraph – 2 letters making one sound  eg   ai  oy ee   

Trigraph – 3 letters making one sound  eg   igh air

Split diagraph – where the two letters are not adjacent  eg  a – e


Blending (for reading) – Recognising the letter sounds in a written word eg  c-u-p  n-igh-t. Blending the sounds in the correct order to pronounce the words cup and night.

Segmenting (for spelling) – Identifying the individual sounds in a spoken word eg h-i-m  s-t-or-k and writing down letters for each sound to form the word him and stork.

CVC words – words that are spelt using a consonant, vowel, consonant eg p-i-g.

CVCC words eg  b-a-n-d

CCVC words eg  c-l-a-p

Phase 2 Letter  sets

Set 1 – s a t p
Set 2  - i n m d
Set 3 – g o c k
Set 4 – ck e u r
Set 5 – h b f,ff l,ll

Phase 3 Letter sets

Set 6 – j v w x
Set 7 – y z,zz qu

Phase 3 graphemes for recognition

ch sh th ng ai ee igh oa  oo ar or  ur

ow oi ear air ure er

Phase 4 

Revision of Phase 3 plus CVCC and CCVC words

Phase 5 

Alternative pronunciations for previously learnt graphemes eg

ow            c ow            b l ow

New graphemes

 ay oy wh ou ir ph  ie ue ew ea aw oe au

a-e   e-e   i-e   o-e    u-e